Carbon nanostructure media (CNM)
Advances in nanoscale science and engineering are providing unprecedented opportunities to the water treatment field. Thanks to their large surface area, well-defined structure and ability to be tailored with various functional groups (e.g. hydroxyl, carboxyl, amines, etc.); carbonaceous nanoparticles offer a very high sorption capacity toward a wide range of substances and bacteria. The high adsorption efficiency, superior to that of conventional microporous activated carbons (e.g. PAC and GAC) is attributed to higher adsorption capacity, higher accessibility of the pore surface area, shorter equilibrium time, higher adsorption energy, and easier and more efficient regeneration.
Numerous studies, most at a laboratory scale, have demonstrated the outperformance of carbon nanostructure media (CNM) with respect to conventional GAC and PAC filters in the removal of metals and organic compounds.
SEM of CNM material
Membrane and carbonaceous nanoparticle technologies are thus incessantly advancing in the field of water treatment, and their integration into water reclamation systems is clearly a key challenge. Furthermore, the combination of both technologies can result in a more flexible, modular and relatively easy approach to reclaim water and provide water with different qualities to fulfil and satisfy the requirements according to their final uses.